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CHAGALL-MALEVICH’s Kristina Schneidermann on Being Bella, Alexander Mitta and Moviemaking Coincidences – Interview by Dana Knight (Exclusive)

chagall posterChagall-Malevich blends fact and folklore in tracing the return of the iconic Jewish artist (Leonid Bichevin) to his childhood home of Vitebsk. Ending his immensely successful stay in Paris, Chagall returns to Russia in 1917, hoping to marry the love of his life Bella Rosenfeld, played by Kristina Schneidermann. The Female Gaze contributor Dana Knight talks to Schneidermann about playing the famous artist’s wife, working with legendary Russian director Alexander Mitta and the striking coincidences that occurred during the making of the fictionalized biopic. Read the interview…

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IRRATIONAL MAN – Review by Susan Granger

Woody Allen has won four Academy Awards, along with the seven bestowed on actors in his films. His 46th film as a director is a comedy about a tormented, disillusioned philosophy professor who muses about “morality, choice and the aesthetics of life, randomness and murder.” When Abe Lucas (Joaquin Phoenix) arrives at Rhode Island’s (fictional) Braylin College, his charismatic reputation precedes him – at least rumors about his alcoholism and legendary penchant for young women. Which poses an enticing challenge for frustrated faculty colleague, Rita Richards (Parker Posey), and eager philosophy student, Jill Pollard (Emma Stone). Read on…

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Amy Kohn on A COURTSHIP, Faith and First Time Filmmaking – Dana Knight interviews for The Female Gaze (Exclusive)

Filmmaker Amy Kohn

Filmmaker Amy Kohn

Amy Kohn’s debut documentary offers a peek into the practice of Christian courtship, wherein a woman hands over the responsibility of finding a husband to her parents and the will of God. Such is the path for Kelly, who after growing up happily in a secular family is prompted by her parent’s divorce to adopt a Christian couple as her spiritual-family who will guide her through courtship. A Courtship premiered at Tribeca Film Festival 2015, where The Female Gaze contributor Dana Knight interviewed the director about her discoveries while making the film, gaining the trust of vulnerable subjects, and the tribulations of first-time filmmaking. Read more>>

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Paz Fabrega and Kattia Gonzalez on VIAJE – Dana Knight interviews for The Female Gaze (exclusive)

viaje1Costa Rican filmmaker Paz Fabrega and actress/producer Kattia Gonzalez chat with film journalist Dana Knight for THE FEMALE GAZE, talking about the New Cinema of Costa Rica, their personal approach to filmmaking and their desire to portray relationships more realistically in Viaje. Their conversation took place during the Tribeca Film Festival, in New York City, on April 4, 2015. Read on…

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SALT OF THE EARTH – Review by Susan Granger

salt of the earth postet160One of the most dazzling documentaries ever, the Oscar-nominated “Salt of the Earth” chronicles the work of humanistic photographer Sabastiao Salgado – as seen through the eyes of his son, Juliano, and filmmaker Wim Wenders. This unique visual odyssey into “the heart of darkness” begins as Salgado comments on one of his most recognized images, a shot of 50,000 men in the vast Serra Pelada gold mine that formed part of the indigenous “Workers: Archeology of the Industrial Age” series, published in 1993. Read on…

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AWFJ @ Salem Film Fest 2015 Filmmaker Forum – “The Obligations and Limitations of Engagement”

At the heart of a good documentary is the heartbeat of the film’s lead characters, and they’re often people who’ve experienced traumatic, life changing events or situations. The documentarians on our panel have witnessed their subjects’ troubles in a most intimate way. We ask them to describe their relationships with their subjects, to tell us how they balance the requisite empathy and objectivity to tell the story, and how they know when it’s time to disengage and complete their films. Core questions that reveal the challenges and solutions facing filmmakers telling the stories of people experiencing difficult life situations. Participants: Erinnisse and Patryk Rebisz (co-dir.) Shoulder the Lion; Morgan Schmidt-Feng (dir.) Om Her Own; Jonathan Howells (dir.) Alfred & Jakobine; Marie-Lou Gingras (editor) Once Upon A Crime: The Borrelli – Davis Conspiracy. Moderated by Jennifer Merin. View the photo gallery.

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STRAY DOG Wins EDA Award @ Salem Film Fest 2015 – Jennifer Merin reports

Filmmakers Debra Granik and Tory Stewart were awarded the AWFJ EDA Award for Best Female-Directed Film at Salem Film Fest for Stray Dog, while Catherine Gund’s BORN TO FLY: Elizabeth Streb vs Gravity was given an EDA Award Special Mention for Documentary Artistry.

Liz Whittenore, Jennifer Merin, Debra Granik, Tory Stewart

Liz Whittenore, Jennifer Merin, Debra Granik, Tory Stewart

For the fourth consecutive year, the Alliance of Women Film Journalists has partnered with Salem Film Fest (March 5 to 12, 2015) to present the juried AWFJ EDA Award for Best Female-Directed Film and to moderate Filmmaker Forum panels. Read on…

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Unconscious Bias and Hollywood’s Arrested Development – Dr. Martha M. Lauzen comments (Exclusive)

Martha Lauzen

Martha Lauzen

As this year’s Oscar nominations attest, the film industry continues to suffer from an acute case of arrested development when it comes to gender diversity. The lack of women nominees as directors, cinematographers, and writers is a symptom of wider biases operating in the business. Read on…

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2014 AWFJ EDA Awards Winners

The Alliance of Women Film Journalists announces the 2014 AWFJ EDA Awards, with BOYHOOD named Best Film and BIRDMAN getting six awards. Ava DuVernay and Laura Poitras also get top honors for SELMA and CITIZENFOUR, respectively, and both are named Female Icons of the Year. Congrats to all the EDA Award winners. To see the complete list, and find out which film had the best depiction of nudity and who is this year’s Actress Most in Need of a New Agent, read on…

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2014 AWFJ EDA Awards Nominees

With sincerest appreciation of all the great work that’s been done in film this year, the Alliance of Women Film Journalists is pleased to announce the nominees for the Eighth Annual AWFJ EDA Awards. Find out which films are thought by AWFJ members to be the best of 2014, and which directors, and who gave the best performances. And who deserves recognition for baring it all in the most appropriately provocative way? Or is being considered for the most coveted award of Actress Most in Need of a New Agent? Or qualifies to be named AWFJ’s Female Icon of the Year for outstanding contributions to cinema and life in general? To get in the know, read on…

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2014 AWFJ EDA Awards Categories

For 2014′s year end awards, the Alliance of Women Film Journalists will present AWFJ EDA Awards in 25 categories, reducing the list from the 31 categories in 2013. Categories for elimination were selected by polling AWFJ members. AWFJ recognizes the contributions and concerns of women in film with the Female Focus and EDA Special Mention categories. Nominations will be announced on December 29, 2014. The winners will be announced on January 12, 2015. For the list of categories, read on…

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TOP FIVE – Review by Susan Granger

top five poster160Chris Rock offers a glimpse of life in the celebrity bubble, playing comedian-turned-actor Andre Allen, who agrees to a day-long interview with a New York Times journalist, Chelsea Brown (Rosario Dawson). Stand-up comic Allen found fame and fortune starring in a trilogy of dumb “Hammy the Bear” movies in which he played the ursine partner of a human policeman. A recovering alcoholic trying to stay sober, he’s embarked on two mid-life endeavors. Determined to be recognized as a serious artist, he’s opening a serious, historical drama “Uprize!” about a 1791 Haitian slave rebellion (which the Times has already panned) and he’s also celebrating his upcoming wedding to beautiful Erica Long (Gabrielle Union), a shallow reality-TV star. Read on…

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AWFJ Presents EDA Awards @ IDFA 2014

IDFA-logo-2014-light-outline

The Alliance of Women Film Journalists Inc. (AWFJ) is pleased to announce the presentation of juried AWFJ EDA Awards at this year’s International Documentary Film Festival Amsterdam (IDFA), the world’s leading documentary film festival.

IDFA 2014 takes place in Amsterdam from November 19 to 30. The EDA Award for Best Female-Directed Documentary at IDFA 2014 will presented at the festival on November 26.

AWFJ, a nonprofit organization of leading female film journalists with active members in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom, recognizes outstanding achievements by women filmmakers by presenting its prestigious EDA Awards at select film festivals around the world, and at year’s end. Read on…

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52nd New York Film Festival: IRIS – Review by Kathleen Carroll

In the ever so posh world of high fashion and design, Iris Apfel has always been thought of as a true original. In her view basic black is for sissies unless you add a vibrantly colored jacket. She simply adores Moroccan jewelry but just one necklace would never do for her. She loves to pile on her amber necklaces and bold cuff bracelets. Her signature look, which includes a huge pair of black-rimmed eye glasses (the kind of glasses the late Carol Channing used to use as her favorite accessory) is truly unique which is why she is still at age 98 a fashion icon. Read on…

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THE BOXTROLLS – Review by Susan Granger

Like “Coraline” and “ParaNorman,” this quirky concept emanates from Laika animation studio in Oregon, where hand-drawn images are meticulously integrated with RP (rapid prototyping) and CG (computer-generated) pictures. Their painstaking stop-motion process consists of filming frame-by-frame (movies use 24 frames per second) while subtly controlling the characters, props, sets, etc. And when using 3D, each frame is manipulated twice. Eventually, the thousands of photographed frames are artfully edited and projected together sequentially, making the characters come to life. Read on…

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A WALK AMONG THE TOMBSTONES – Review by Susan Granger

Mystery novelist Lawrence Block’s world-weary detective Matthew Scudder comes to the silver screen, capably embodied by Liam Neeson (“Taken,” “Unknown,” “Non-Stop”) in an obvious attempt to start a new film franchise. The prologue, set in 1991, establishes Scudder as a former NYC cop, a recovering alcoholic who gave up booze after a shootout went tragically awry. By 1999, Scudder has become an unlicensed investigator, noting: “I do favors for people….in return, they give me gifts.” Read on…

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AWFJ EDA Awards 2014 Schedule

awfjlinklogoThe Alliance of Women Film Journalists (AWFJ) is pleased to announce the schedule for the 2014 AWFJ EDA Awards, our eighth annual year end awards presentation.

As in previous years, the EDA Awards will recognize and honor outstanding achievement for Best Film, Best Director, Best Actress and the other ‘Best’ categories presented by other awards groups. Additionally, we will also continue our tradition of signature categories, such as ‘Actress Most in Need of a New Agent,’ ‘Best Nudity,”Hall of Shame’ and other distinctive AWFJ EDA Awards classifications.

Our voters are Alliance of Women Film Journalists membership, a consortium of 91 of the top female film critics, reporters and commentators working in print, broadcast and online in the United States, Canada and United Kingdom.

In addition to our year end celebrations, AWFJ presents EDA Awards at select film festivals throughout the year. Edinburgh International Film Festival, Salem Film Fest, St. Louis International Film Festival, Sheffield Doc/Fest and Whistler Film Festival have been on our festivals roster. We have also presented EDA Awards in conjunction with MoMA’s 25th Anniversary Retrospective of POV Programming on PBS.

Here is the 2014-15 AWFJ EDA AWARDS SCHEDULE:

  • Dec 16, 2014: 2013 EDA AWARDS CATEGORIES ANNOUNCED
  • Dec.18, 2014: Initial nominating ballots distributed to voting members.
  • Dec 22, 2014: Due date for completed nominating ballots.
  • Dec 29, 2014: 2012 EDA AWARDS NOMINEES ANNOUNCED.
  • Jan 02, 2015: Final voting ballots distributed to members.
  • Jan 07, 2015: Due date for completed voting ballots.
  • Jan 12, 2015: 2014 EDA AWARDS WINNERS ANNOUNCED.

For an overview of the AWFJ EDA Awards and the lists of past winners, click here.

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AWFJ Set to Present EDA Awards @ Whistler Film Festival December 3-7, 2014

thumbnail NEW YORK — The Alliance of Women Film Journalists Inc. (AWFJ) is pleased to announce the presentation of juried AWFJ EDA Awards at this year’s Whistler Film Festival, held from December 3 to 7, 2014 in Whistler, British Columbia.

AWFJ returns to Whistler Film Festival for the second year running with the presentation of EDA Awards for best female-directed films in both both narrative and documentary feature categories. Read on…

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PLANES: FIRE AND RESCUE – Review by Susan Granger

Anthropomorphizing automobiles, trains, ships and planes has become a Disney specialty. This time, the comedic adventure is set in a Western wilderness area known as Piston Peak National Park. Read on…

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AWFJ Presents EDA Awards @ Edinburgh International Film Festival 2014

The Alliance of Women Film Journalists (AWFJ) has extended its EDA Awards festival program to include presentation of juried EDA Awards for best female-directed narrative and documentary features at the 2014 Edinburgh International Film Festival, held from June 18 to 30, 2014. The EDA Award winners were announced and EDA Award certificates presented by AWFJ President Jennifer Merin at EIFF’s awards ceremony on June 27, at Edinburgh’s FilmHouse. AWFJ jurors presented three awards to female-directed films at EIFF this year. Read on…

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Why Are Women In Film Stuck? — Commentary by Martha M. Lauzen — Exclusive to AWFJ

Martha Lauzen

Martha Lauzen

Women working in the film industry are stuck.

According to the latest Celluloid Ceiling study, women comprised only 16% of all directors, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing films of 2013. This figure is actually one percentage point lower than in 1998! Read on…

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GENDER @ THE MOVIES: On-line Film Critics and Criticism – Martha Lauzen’s Shocking Stats

Martha Lauzen

Martha Lauzen

Recent events indicate that gender often plays a role in popular film criticism. In February of this year, Rex Reed, film critic for the New York Observer, made an issue of Melissa McCarthy’s weight in his review of Identity Thief. This incident followed closely on the heels of a (now former) male editor at the Niagara Falls Reporter ordering a critic to refrain from reviewing films with strong female characters. While such anecdotal stories are attention getting, they reveal little about the relationship between gender, film critics, and movie reviews. Read on…

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AWFJ News: EDA Awards 2013 – Sarah Polley Wins Best Doc for STORIES WE TELL

Sarah Polley receives 2014 AWFJ EDA Award for Best Documentary from Jennifer Merin

Sarah Polley receives 2014 AWFJ EDA Award for Best Documentary from Jennifer Merin

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How Women Can Save the World by Telling Epic Stories in the Movies – Commentary by Govindini Murty

A Wonder Woman fan film that blazed across the Internet this week has women everywhere cheering the possibility of a female superhero movie. It also raised the intriguing question: What might our culture be like if we had more grand, epic movies about the lives of women? And what if female filmmakers were writing and directing them? Read more>>

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Thumbs Down

Thumbs Down: Representation of Women Film Critics in the Top 100 U.S. Daily Newspapers

By Dr. Martha M. Lauzen

Director

Center for the Study of Women In Television and Film

San Diego State University

Introduction

Contrary to the myriad prognostications of media observers and writers, film criticism is not dead. It is, however, hurtling into a new era in which professional critics share space with amateurs, and credentialed journalists find multiple platforms for their reviews. Through web sites such as Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic, formerly print-only film critics and writers now supplement their traditional audience with a whole new generation of on-line readers.

A number of these critics have noted the incredibly low numbers of women filmmakers and female protagonists in major studio films. Commenting on the dearth of women directors and lead characters in films released during the summer of 2008, New York Times critic Manohla Dargis opined, “Welcome to the new, post-female American cinema” (“Is There a Real Woman in this Multiplex?”, May 4, 2008, p. 3).

The fact that males dominate the business and art of filmmaking is well documented. According to the latest Celluloid Ceiling report, women comprised a scant 15% of all directors, writers, producers, editors, and cinematographers working on the top 250 films of 2007 (“The Celluloid Ceiling: Behind-the-Scenes Representation of Women on the Top 250 Films of 2007,” Martha M. Lauzen). In addition, female characters comprised only 28% of all characters in the top 100 films of 2002. However, little is known about the sex of those writing reviews and whether this influences the nature of their reviews. This report seeks to fill this void by asking some basic questions about women’s representation in the ranks of those individuals who write about film in the United States.

This study examined film reviews for theatrical releases written in the top 100 U.S. daily newspapers (by circulation) from October 22, 2007 through December 25, 2007. A list of these newspapers can be found in the Appendix.

The sample included reviews written by film critics; other types of critics including those for television, music, and popular culture; staff reporters; and

freelancers. In addition to tracking the overall numbers of reviews written by these individuals for the top 100 newspapers, one randomly selected review by each individual who wrote during the study period was chosen for additional analysis. These reviews were analyzed for length (number of sentences) and nature of the review (number of positive, negative, or mixed/neutral sentences).

Findings

During the fall of 2007, 186 individuals wrote 2,365 film reviews for theatrical releases appearing in the top 100 daily newspapers in the United States with a combined circulation of approximately 28,215,000 readers. However, because the majority of these reviews also appear on the Internet, the reach and influence of the writers included in this study are far greater than the circulation numbers indicate. According to the Rotten Tomatoes website, over 7 million readers visit the site each month.

Approximately one-quarter (26%) of the newspapers in the study had no women or men writing film reviews during the study period. It is not known whether the absence of film reviews in these newspapers is the result of recent budget cuts or long-standing policies regarding news content. Numerous media reports have documented the recent cutbacks at newspapers nationwide.

Writing for Variety, Anne Thompson noted, “Over the past two years, newspapers have forced out or pushed into early retirement some 28 critics” (“Crix’ Cachet Losing Critical Mass,” April 7-13, 2008, p. 12). Los Angeles Times columnist Patrick Goldstein observed, “Seeing their business model crumble, many newspapers simply have decided they can’t afford a full range of critics anymore” (“Are They Still Relevant? Everyone’s a Critic,” April 8, 2008, pp. E1, E4).

Of the newspapers featuring film reviews in the fall of 2007, 47% had no reviews written by women critics, writers or freelancers. In contrast, only 12% had no reviews written by men critics, writers or freelancers. Overall, 70% of the individuals reviewing theatrical film releases in Fall 2007 were male and 30% were female. In addition, men wrote significantly more film reviews than women. Men wrote an average of 14 film reviews. Women wrote an average of 9 film reviews.

These imbalances may be slightly tempered by the fact that women critics, writers, and freelancers wrote for newspapers with marginally higher circulations. The average circulation size of newspapers with women writing reviews was 348,530. The average circulation size of newspapers with men writing reviews was 294,760.

In addition, women and men wrote reviews of equal length. Reviews written by both women and men averaged 23 sentences.

In sum, more men than women write film reviews in the nation’s top circulation newspapers, and men write more reviews than women on average. Women work for newspapers with slightly larger circulations and their reviews are the same length as men’s.

Overall, these findings suggest that film criticism in this country’s newspapers is largely a male enterprise, echoing the heavy male dominance behind the scenes and on screen in the film industry.

Sex of Reviewers and Job Titles

Men outnumbered women in every job title category considered in this study. Seventy seven percent (77%) of film critics were male and 23% were

female. Sixty eight percent (68%) of staff writers were male and 32% were female. Eighty four percent (84%) of other types of critics (e.g., television,

theatre) writing film reviews were male and 16% were female. Sixty one percent (61%) of freelancers were male and 39% were female (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. Job Title by Sex of Reviewer

Women were most likely to hold the job title of staff writer, whereas men were most likely to hold the job title of film critic. Women writing reviews were most likely to hold the job title of staff writer (35%), followed by film critic (29%), freelancer (29%), or some other type of critic (8%). Men writing reviews were most likely to hold the job title of film critic (37%), followed by staff writer (29%), freelancer (18%), or some other type of critic (16%). These findings indicate that men hold the higher status titles of film critic or critic in categories other than film including television critic, music critic, theatre critic, pop culture critic, and media critic. Individuals with these titles are assumed to have expertise in their given area. In contrast, the women in this study were more concentrated in the staff writer and freelancer categories. These job titles imply a jack-of-all-trades or part-time status.

In every job title category, men wrote more film reviews than women. Men film critics wrote an average of 25 reviews whereas women film critics wrote an average of 19 reviews. Men staff writers wrote an average of 10 reviews and women staff writers wrote an average of 6 reviews. Men critics in areas other than film wrote an average of 6 film reviews whereas women with this job title wrote an average of 3 film reviews. Men freelancers wrote an average of 7 reviews and women freelancers wrote an average of 4 reviews.

Sex of Reviewers and Film Genre

Men wrote more reviews of films in all genres than women. Men wrote 77% and women 23% of reviews about dramas. Men penned 55% and women 45% of reviews about comedies. Men wrote 57% and women 43% of reviews about romantic comedies and dramas (see Figure 2).

Figure 2. Genre of Films Reviewed by Sex of Reviewer

Romantic comedies and dramas constituted a larger proportion of the reviews written by women than by men. Sixteen percent (16%) of the reviews written by women but only 9% of the reviews written by men were about romantic comedies and romantic dramas. Twenty seven percent (27%) of the reviews written by women and 14% of the reviews written by men were for non-romantic comedies. Fifty six percent (56%) of the reviews written by women and 77% of the reviews written by men were for non-romantic dramas.

It is unclear whether women chose to review romantic comedies and dramas or if editors were more likely to assign films with romantic themes to women writers. Informal interviews with a number of the critics included in this study suggest that the ratios are a likely result of reviewer choices and editorial assignments. The individuals interviewed described the assignment of film reviews as a highly collaborative process, involving input from both reviewers and editors.

Sex of Filmmaker and Sex of Reviewer

This study considered whether women were more likely than men to review films featuring a female director. However, the number of films with female directors during the study period was so low that it prohibited statistical analysis. Thus, we combined women directors and women writers to create a women behind-the-scenes variable.

Of the reviews written by women, 22% were for films with at least one woman director or writer and 78% were for films with only men as directors and writers. Of the reviews written by men, 14% were for films with at least one woman director or writer and 86% were for films with only men as directors and writers. In other words, films with women filmmakers constituted a larger portion of the films reviewed by women than by men.

It is not clear whether women chose to write reviews of films with women directors and writers or if editors assigned these films to women writers. Informal interviews with film critics included in this study indicate that reviewer choices and editorial assignments produce the reported percentages.

Sex of Protagonist and Sex of Reviewer

This study also considered whether women were more likely than men to review films featuring a female protagonist. However, the number of films featuring a clearly identifiable female protagonist was so low that films falling in this category were combined with films featuring ensemble casts in order to conduct the statistical analysis.

Of the reviews written by women, 33% were for films featuring a female protagonist or ensemble cast and 67% were for films featuring a male protagonist. Of the reviews written by men, 18% were for films featuring a female protagonist or ensemble cast and 82% were for films featuring a male protagonist. In other words, a significantly higher percentage of films reviewed

by women than men were for films featuring female protagonists or ensemble casts.

Once again, it is likely that these findings are due to a combination of reviewer preferences and editorial assignments.

Editors of Film Critics, Writers, and Freelancers

This study identified the sex of the editor of the section containing film reviews. Forty nine percent (49%) of these editors were female and 41% were male. Ten percent (10%) had no section editor or the gender of the section editor was unknown.

Nature of Reviews and Sex of Reviewer

Whereas the numbers of women versus men who write reviews and the number of reviews that they write are decidedly unequal, the nature of the reviews written does not appear to differ by sex of the reviewer.

This study analyzed one randomly selected review by each of the 186 individuals writing reviews during the study period. We counted the number of positive, negative, and neutral/mixed sentences in these reviews. Positive sentences praised some aspect of the film including performances, cinematography, pacing, and storylines. Negative sentences noted poor performances, disjointed plots, and overly pedantic or frenzied pacing. Mixed or neutral sentences included both positive and negative comments or offered plot descriptions.

On average, women and men wrote equally negative reviews. Both women and men wrote reviews with an average of 4 negative sentences. On average, women and men wrote equally positive reviews. Both women and men wrote reviews with an average of 5 positive sentences. The remaining sentences in the average 23-sentence review offered either mixed or neutral observations. In addition, women were not more likely than men to write significantly more positive reviews about films with at least one woman director and/or writer or featuring a female protagonist or ensemble cast. Similarly, men were not more likely than women to write significantly more positive reviews about films with only men filmmakers or featuring a male protagonist.

Conclusion

In summary, women are under-employed as reviewers of film in the nation’s 100 largest circulation newspapers. Not only are women outnumbered as film critics, staff writers, other types of critics, and freelancers, women also review fewer films on average than men. In addition, larger proportions of the films reviewed by women are for films with romantic themes, and those with women filmmakers and women protagonists or ensemble casts. However, the actual reviews written by men and women do not differ significantly in their length or nature. Women and men write equally positive and negative reviews and do not become significantly more positive when writing about films with same-sex protagonists or filmmakers.

Overall, these findings suggest that film criticism in this country’s newspapers is largely a male enterprise, echoing the predominance of men working on screen and behind the scenes in the film industry. In short, men dominate the reviewing process of films primarily made by men featuring mostly males intended for a largely male audience. The under-employment of women film reviewers, actors, and filmmakers perpetuates the nearly seamless dialogue among men in U.S. cinema.

Appendix : Top 100 U.S. Daily Newspapers*

Newspaper

Circulation

USA Today

2,269,509

The Wall Street Journal

2,043,235

The New York Times

1,066.798

Los Angeles Times

  775,766

New York Post

  704,011

Daily News

  693,382

The Washington Post

  656,297

Chicago Tribune

  576,132

Houston Chronicle

  508,097

Newsday

  410,579

The Dallas Morning News

  404,653

The Arizona Republic

  397,294

The Boston Globe

  386,415

Chicago Sun-Times

  382,796

The Star-Ledger

  378,100

San Francisco Chronicle

  373,805

Star Tribune

  358,887

The Atlanta Journal-Constitution

  350,157

Detroit Free Press

  345,861

The Plain Dealer

  336,939

The Philadelphia Inquirer

  330,622

The Oregonian

  310,803

St. Petersburg Times

  305,854

The San Diego Union-Tribune

  304,334

The Orange County Register

  287,204

Miami Herald

  279,878

St. Louis Post-Dispatch

  276,588

The Sacramento Bee

  273,609

am New York

  266,852

The Times-Picayune

  261,573

The Washington Examiner

  260,950

The Indianapolis Star

  258,696

The Denver Post

  255,935

Rocky Mountain News

  255,675

The Kansas City Star

  254,793

The Baltimore Sun

  236,172

South Florida Sun-Sentinel

  235,154

Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

  230,781

San Jose Mercury News

  228,880

Express–News

  223,846

Orlando Sentinel

  221,826

The Tampa Tribune

  220,277

The Columbus Dispatch

  217,291

The Seattle Times

  212,691

Pittsburgh Post-Gazette

  212,075

The Courier-Journal

  210,081

Fort Worth Star-Telegram

  206,991

The Charlotte Observer

  206,497

Boston Herald

  203,552

The Oklahoman

  201,947

The Detroit News

  201,482

The Cincinnati Enquirer

  197,962

St. Paul Pioneer Press

  184,371

The Buffalo News

  183,856

The Virginian-Pilot

  183,210

Richmond Times-Dispatch

  181,369

Hartford Courant

  179,066

Omaha World-Herald

  177,919

Arkansas Democrat-Gazette

  176,172

Investor’s Business Daily

  173,169

The Press-Enterprise

  170,965

Contra Costa Times

  168,689

Las Vegas Review-Journal

  168,653

The Austin American-Statesman

  168,569

The Palm Beach Post

  167,605

The Record

  166,392

The News & Observer

  165,483

San Francisco Examiner

  165,183

The Tennessean

  165,131

Rochester Democrat and Chronicle

  156,129

Florida Times-Union

  154,700

Commercial Appeal

  154,403

The Providence Journal

  152,736

Daily News

  151,215

Daily Herald

  151,200

The Fresno Bee

  149,491

Asbury Park Press

  148,690

The Des Moines Register

  147,701

The Birmingham News

  143,791

Honolulu Advertiser

  139,312

The Grand Rapids Press

  132,214

The Salt Lake City Tribune

  131,361

Seattle Post-Intelligencer

  126,225

Dayton Daily News

  123,181

The Blade

  123,095

The Journal News

  122,358

La Opinion

  121,572

Akron Beacon Journal

  118,771

Tulsa World

  117,844

The News Tribune

  116,150

Knoxville News Sentinel

  115,608

The Post-Standard

  114,179

Daily News

  112,540

The News Journal

  112,492

Lexington Herald-Leader

  108,442

The Morning Call

  108,200

Herald-Tribune

  107,755

The State

  104,880

Arizona Daily Star

  104,731

Albuquerque Journal

  103,889

*Source: 2007 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook

About the Center

The mission of the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film is to celebrate the accomplishments of television and film directors, writers, producers, cinematographers, and editors – who happen to be women. The Center’s programs encourage more women to pursue careers as storytellers, and its research agenda documents trends in women’s employment, the impact of their employment on television and film content, and factors influencing the under-representation of women’s voices in television and film.

About the Author

Dr. Martha M. Lauzen is founder and Executive Director of the Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film at San Diego State University. A nationally and internationally recognized expert on the employment of women on screen and behind the scenes, her research has been widely published in scholarly journals, trade publications, and the popular press. Dr. Lauzen directs research at the Center and teaches classes including The Women of Prime Time: From “That Girl” to “Saving Grace” and Film Directors: When Women Call the Shots in the School of Theatre, Television and Film. She holds a doctorate from the University of Maryland, and M.A. and B.A. degrees from the University of Iowa.

Special Thanks

The author wishes to thank the following individuals for their important contributions to this project: Mary Long, M.A. Candidate, Department of Women’s Studies, SDSU, and Douglas M. Deiss, Jr., M.A., School of Communication, SDSU.

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